Record ID: 101

Site Name



Seaport - European


city (1995 pop. 692,954), (cap.) Sweden and Stockholm co. (though independent of co.), E Sweden, where L. M�laren flows into Baltic Sea; 59�19'N 18�02'E. Sweden�s largest city; its economic, transportation, administrative, and cultural center. Port; mfg. (machinery, chemicals, communications equip., processed food, printed materials, porcelain, liquor). Seat of Sweden�s principal stock exchange. Founded mid-13th cent. on fishing village site; became important trade center, dominated by Hanseatic League (esp. L�beck). Christian II of Denmark and Norway proclaimed himself also king of Sweden here (1520), instigating Stockholm Massacre, killing of anti-Dan. nobility attending coronation. Gustavus Vasa then led successful Swed. uprising, becoming King Gustavus I (1523�1560); Stockholm became center of kingdom; Hanseatic merchant privileges were ended. Official capital of Sweden since 1634. Eur. intellectual center of 17th cent. under Queen Christina, who attracted men like philosopher Descartes here. Modern industrial development from mid-19th cent.; pop. grew from 100,000 (1850) to 300,000 (1900). Architecturally one of world�s finest cities, with broad streets, many parks, well-planned housing projects. Often called �Venice of the North,� built on several peninsulas and isls. (including Stadsholmen, Riddarholmen, Kungsholmen, and S�dermalm isls.). Large bodies of water contribute to feeling of spaciousness. City Hall (1911�1923), facing L. M�laren; designed by Swed. architect Ragnar �stberg, impressive modern interpretation of characteristic Scandinavian Renaissance style. Large residential dists. of cooperative houses have helped make city virtually slumless. Stadsholmen [=old town], or Gamla Stan, has retained medieval character, with Church of St. Nicholas or Storkyrkan [=great church] (13th cent.); Church of St. Gertrude, or German Church, originally built for Hanseatic merchants; several old Hanseatic houses; Great Square, site of Stockholm Massacre; Du. Renaissance�style Riddarhuset [=assembly hall of nobility] (17th cent.); Tessin Palace (18th cent.); Ital. Renaissance�style Royal Palace (1754). Seat of Stockholm Univ. (1877), technical univ., Stockholm School of Economics, royal academies of music, science, art, and medicine. The Nobel Inst., scene of annual Nobel prize awards (except Nobel Peace Prize). Opera House (1898); Royal Dramatic Theatre (1908). Skansen open-air mus., Vasa Mus. (partially restored 17th-cent. warship raised from harbor); zoological garden. Lively artistic, literary scene. Site of 1912 Olympic games; Scandinavia�s largest sports arena (Globe). Arlanda Internatl. Airport to N.