Record ID: 103

Site Name



Seaport - European


city (1994 pop.1,702,900), coextensive with, and (cap.) Hamburg state (area: 288 sq mi/746 sq km), N Germany, on the Elbe R. near its mouth in the North Sea, and on the Alster R.; 53�33'N 10�00'E. The economic center of Germany and its 2d-largest city, Hamburg is the nation�s busiest port and its major industrial city� Its harbor handles approximately � of Germany�s imports� and exports� Hamburg originated (early 9th cent.) in the Carolingian castle of Hammaburg, probably built by Charlemagne as a defense against the Slavs. It became (834) an archepiscopal see (united in 847 with the archdiocese of Bremen) and a missionary center for N Europe. Grew to commercial importance and in 1241 formed an alliance with L�beck, which later became the basis of the Hanseatic League� Occupied by the French in 1806 and in 1815 joined the Ger. Confederation. In 1842 a fire destroyed much of the city. After World War I Hamburg was briefly (1918�1919) a socialist republic. In 1937 the city ceded Cuxhaven, its outlying port, to Prussia, but incorporated the neighboring towns of Altona, Harburg, and Wandsbek. During World War II (esp. in 1943) Hamburg was severely damaged by aerial bombardment, and some 55,000 persons were killed�