Links/page names are inconsistent--some of the page names have the date in them (the later ones) but some of them (the earlier ones) don't. Which is preferable?

15,000,000,000 B.C. - Universe begins 15 billion years ago
5,000,000,000 B.C. - Solar systems form 5 billion years ago
4,600,000,000 B.C. - Earth and moon form 4.6 billion years ago
3,800,000,000 B.C. - Earth's crust and oceans form 3.8 billion years ago
2,000,000,000 B.C. - Oxygen appears in earth's atmosphere 2 billion years ago
2,000,000,000 B.C. - Earth's surface breaks into two continents
1,000,000,000 B.C. - Earth's two land masses further divide into five continents
1,000,000,000 B.C. - Oxygen levels permit plant life
600,000,000 B.C. - Multicellular life begins
500,000,000 B.C. - Recognizably human species evolve
458,000,000 B.C. - North America forms
370,000,000 B.C. - Sea-dwelling living forms come ashore
200,000,000 B.C. - Vertebrate life begins
152,000,000 B.C. - Birth of Atlantic Ocean
1,000,000 B.C. - Humans migrate from Africa to Asia
500,000 B.C. - Humans migrate into Europe
50,000 B.C. - Humans in Eurasia develop the use of stone tools
35,000 B.C. - Humans migrate from South Asia to New Guinea and Australia
18,000 B.C. - Last Ice Age Begins
10, 000 B.C. - End of the Last Ice Age

10,000 B.C. - Land bridge across Bering Strait provides route for humans into America
9000 B.C. - Human settlement of North America reaches as far south as New Mexico
8000 B.C. - Mesolithic Period Begins
7500 B.C. - Boats sailing in Aegean from island to island
7000 B.C. - Era of first known log boats
6500 B.C. - Human food production & domestication of animals begins in Middle East
6500 B.C. - Neolithic Age farmers settle Crete and Cyprus
6000 B.C. - Evidence of deep sea fishing in Scandinavia
5000 B.C. - First image of watercraft
4000 B.C. - Food production techniques reach Britain & Ireland
3500 B.C. - Sumerian efforts to harness Tigris and Euphrates
3100 B.C. - Earliest image of a sail on a watercraft
3000 B.C. - Evidence of shell-first boat construction
3000 B.C. - Rise of Minoan/Mycenean power in Aegean region
2750 B.C. - Egyptian expedition in Red Sea
2600 B.C. - Egyptian maritime excursions to Syria
2500 B.C. - Polynesians begin migrations across the South Pacific
2500 B.C. - Period of the Cleops boat
2500 B.C. - //Gilgamesh Tales// written in Mesopotamia
2400 B.C. - Egyptians sail in Indian Ocean
2200 B.C. - Egyptian tale of "Shipwrecked Sailor"
2000 B.C. - Babylonian maps etched in stone
1800 B.C. - Time of Old Testament prophet Abraham
1600 B.C. - Plank boats in use in Western Europe
1500 B.C. - Keel introduced into hull construction

1200 B.C. - Time of Trojan War about which Homer later wrote
1000 B.C. - Phoenicians control eastern Mediterranean
900 B.C. - Biremes put into seagoing service
814 B.C. - Phoenicians venture into the Atlantic
800 B.C. - Homer writes //__The Iliad__// and //The Odyssey//__
750 B.C. - Phoenicians sail down African coast
700 B.C. - Phoenicians establish Cadiz as Atlantic port
600 B.C. - Noah's ark built and launched
520 B.C. - Hanno sails along West African coast
500 B.C. - Greeks introduce trireme
480 B.C. - Battle of Salamis
440 B.C. - Herodotus writes on earlier maritime conflicts
431 B.C. - Peloponnesian War begins
415 B.C. - Athenian naval siege of Sicily
410 B.C. - Thucydides' writes //History of Peloponessian War//
403 B.C. - Peloponnesian War ends
350 B.C. - Greeks add India to world maps
350 B.C. - Alexander the Great mounts overland expedition
330 B.C. - Aristotle writes about the sea
330 B.C. - Greeks on naval expeditions in Indian Ocean
324 B.C. - Pytheas sails north of Gibraltar to English Channel
264 B.C. - Commencement of the Punic Wars
250 B.C. - Eratosthenes develops measurement akin to latitude
241 B.C. - Roman victorious in First Punic War
202 B.C. - Punic Wars conclude with Rome triumphant
150 B.C. - Selonius correlates tidal fluctuations to the moon
140 B.C. - Hipparchus divides Earth's circumference into degrees
54 B.C. - Caesar lands amphibious force on British coast
31 B.C. - Roman control of Mediterranean sea lanes begins
31 B.C. - Battle of Actium

25 AD - Chinese topographical maps to scale
30 AD - Jesus recruits fishermen as apostles
58 AD - Paul the Apostle shipwrecked off Malta
140 - Ptolemy's Geography
150 - Blackfriars Boat operating on Thames
300 - Byzantines seize control of Eastern Mediterranean
350 - Workings of a steam engine described
407 - Romans leave Britain
410 - Visigoths enter and sack Rome
561 - St. Brendan sails about the North Atlantic
647 - Arabs assault Constaninople
700 - Northerh European development of the cag
710 - Venerable Bede records his observations of tidal variations
715 - Albi map
720 - Arab shipbuilders develop lateen sail
750 - Polynesians colonize Hawaii
793 - Vikings plunder Lindisfarne on North England coast
827 - Arabs seize Sardinia
838 - Vikings capture Dublin, Ireland
844 - Northmen sack Seville
860 - Iceland discovered by Scandinavians
886 - Alfred the Great constructs a fleet to repel Norsemen
891 - Anglo Saxon Chronicles contains a poem extolling the sea
934 -Tales of the Arabian Nights written
950 - Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf written
982 - Eric the Red settles Greenland
1000 - Polynesian Maori tribesmen reach and inhabit New Zealand
1000 - Atlantic port of Lixus established by Phoenicians
1002 - Leif Eriksson comes ashore in North America
1050 - Frame-first, skeletal hull construction becomes the norm
1066 - The Normans from France conquer England
1081 - Venice initiates trade eastward with Byzantine Empire
1095 - European Christian forces launch Crusades
1150 - Rudimentary magnetic compass introduced
1158 - Several ports on Baltic Sea organize into Hanseatic League
1160 - Three-century long "Ice Age" hits Europe
1191 - First exports of tea from China arrive in Europe
1200 - French Basques hunt whales in Bay of Biscayne
1200 - Magnetic compass begins to be used at sea in Mediterranean
1204 - Naval assault by Christian Europe on Constantinople
1240 - First known tide table compiled
1250 - Vertical-hinged rudder astern introduced in northern Europe
1264 - Roger Bacon's Opus majus appears
1271 - Marco Polo establishes an overland trade route to China
1275 - The date of the oldest surviving portulan, the Carta Pisana
1280 - Magnetic compass introduced in Mediterrean
1290 - Portolan maps of Mediterranean use magnetic north
1290 - Crusades come to a close
1291 - Canary Islands happened upon by Genoese mariners
1298 - Marco Polo records his Travels of Marco Polo
1300 - Mappo mundi maps drawn in Europe
1320 - Active chart making business in Genoa
1328 - Invention of sawmill spurs shipbuilding in northern Europe
1336 - Genoese navigator records expedition to Canary Islands
1337 - Hundred Years War commences
1340 - English win control of English Channel from French
1346 - Black Death spread by ships throughout Europe; results in sharp drop in population
1350 - Caravels developed by Portuguese for Atlantic explorations
1350 - Mounted guns first used on European naval ships
1370 - Portuguese take possession of Canary Islands
1385 - Portugal achieves its autonomy from Castille
1386 - Portugal-Britain Treaty of Windsor
1394 - Prince Henry of Portugal born
1400 - Portuguese and Basques fishing off North America
1405 - Voyages of Chinese Admiral Zheng He begin
1409 - Ptolemy's Geography and maps back into circulation
1410 - Disputed Vinland map said to have been drawn
1411 - Fish merchants of Bristol, England trade with Iceland
1414 - Portuguese foothold on coast of Africa begins
1418 - Portuguese colonize Island of Madeira
1432 - Portuguese sailor discovers the Azores Islands
1434 - Portuguese sail around the hump of West Africa
1441 - Portuguese reinstate slave trade
1445 - Portuguese colonize the Azores
1445 - Portuguese navigator discovers Cape Verde
1450 - Export of African slaves to Europe and the sugar plantations off West Africa begin
1450 - Mediterranean shipbuilders develop the carrack
1450 - Portuguese navigators use quadrant to measure altitudes of celestial bodies
1453 - Printing press spurs distribution of navigational tables and ship plans
1453 - Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople
1463 - War between the Turks and Venice begins
1469 - Ferdinand and Isabella marry, uniting most of Spain under Christian monarchs
1469 - Portuguese exploring Guinea of West Africa
1470 - Invention of printing leads to proliferation of maps
1474 - Toscanelli estimate of distance from Portugal to China
1475 - Portuguese explorations of West Africa establish footholds
1477 - Ptolemy's Geographia published
1479 - War between the Turks and Venice ends
1479 - The Treaty of Alcacovas between Spain & Portugal
1480 - Geographia printed throughout Europe
1482 - Portuguese construct San Jorge da Mina on the African Gold Coast
1483 - Portuguese mariner Diego Cao discovers the mouth of the Congo River
1483 - Marco Polo's Travels widely circulated
1485 - Portuguese develop solar declination tables for determining latitude
1486 - Spanish begin takeover of Canary Islands
1487 - Portuguese round Cape of Good Hope and enter Indian Ocean
1490 - Terrestrial globe by Martin Behaim
1492 - Ferdinand and Isabella complete the reconquest of Spain
1492 - First voyage of Columbus to Americas
1493 - Columbus makes second of his four voyages
1494 - Treaty of Tordesillas
1496 - Spaniards complete their conquest of the Canary Islands
1497 - Portuguese Vasco Da Gama sails around Africa to India
1497 - English establish first claims to America
1498 - Columbus makes third voyage to Caribbean
1499 - Amerigo Vespucci reaches South America, later identifies it as separate continent
1500 - Juan de la Cosa's Map of the New World reflects Columbus's voyages
1500 - Dutch engage in whale hunting in North Sea
1500 - Dutch hunting whales in North Sea
1501 - Amerigo Vespucci sails to the coast of Brazil
1501 - Gaspar Corte-Real Voyage to Newfoundland
1502 - Columbus makes 4th and last voyage to Caribbean
1502 - Spanish begin importing African slaves into New Spain
1503 - Vespucci's Mundus Novus published
1504 - Venice proposes constructing the Suez Canal
1506 - Columbus dies
1507 - Martin Waldseemuller world map published
1508 - French reconnaissance of Cabot-marked North America
1508 - Sebastian Cabot voyage north of Newfoundland
1512 - England begins construction of double-deck warships
1513 - Spanish explorer Vasco Balboa sights Pacific Ocean around Panama
1513 - Spanish explorer Ponce de Leon to Florida
1514 - Ponce de Leon reports on fast moving current (Gulf Stream)
1516 - Spanish Peter Martyr publishes De Orbe Novo
1517 - Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation
1517 - 50 ships fishing the Newfoundland banks
1517 - Failed English follow-up to Cabot's Newfoundland voyage
1519 - Ferdinand Magellan sails from Spain around S. America into Pacific
1519 - The existence of what later called the Gulf Stream is known among Atlantic seafarers
1519 - Peter Martyr's De orbe nove Decade published
1520 - Hernando Cortez conquers Aztecs and takes control of Mexico
1521 - Spaniard coasting of Florida to 33/30'N
1522 - Remnants of Magellan crew reach Spain
1524 - Giovanni da Verrazzano explores east coast of North America
1524 - Sebastian Cabot voyage to South America
1525 - Estevan Gomez sails in search of middle passage to Asia
1527 - Bartolomeu Las Casa's Historia de las Indias published
1529 - Gerolamo da Verrazzano draws a world map depicting his brother's discoveries
1529 - Diego Ribero constructs map with continuous North American coast
1533 - Pope Clement VII modifies earlier papal division of new world between Spain and Portugal
1534 - A Spanish expedition led by Francisco Pizarro begins the conquest of Peru
1534 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland, St. Lawrence Bay, and Canadian interior
1534 - Henry VIII of England establishes Church of England
1534 - Ignatius Loyola founds Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
1535 - Cartier's second voyage credited with discovery of Canada
1536 - John Calvin publishes Religious Institutes
1541 - Cartier attempts to establish settlement at Quebec
1542 - Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo explores coast of southern California
1542 - First Portuguese reach Japan
1543 - Nicolas Copernicus proposes a universe with the sun at its center
1545 - Pope Paul III convenes Council of Trent to deal with the Reformation
1545 - Spaniards discover and begin to exploit huge silver deposits in Bolivia
1547 - Henry VIII dies
1550 - Northern European shipbuilders move to the galleon
1553 - Mary I attempts to restore Catholicism to England
1555 - Spain's Philip II becomes Holy Roman Emperor
1558 - Queen Mary of England dies, succeeded by Elizabeth I
1558 - Hernando de Soto finds the Mississippi River
1562 - French Civil War between Catholics and Protestants
1562 - Sir John Hawkins initiates England's entry into the African slave trade
1562 - Diego Gutierrez map of America
1568 - The Netherlands begin an 80-year battle for their independence from Spain
1569 - First projection devised by Geraldus Mercator used on a map
1570 - Abraham Ortelius produces first historical atlas
1571 - Battle of Lepanto, last sea battle in which rowed vessels predominate
1575 - Martin Frobisher searches for Northwest Passage to Asia
1575 - Andre Thevet associates Gulf Stream with the rivers of the Gulf of Mexico
1577 - Francis Drake makes first English circumnavigation of the world
1578 - 350 European ships fishing Newfoundland banks
1581 - Philip II asserts Spain's claim to Portugal
1582 - Richard Hakluyt publishes first edition of Divers Voyages
1582 - Pope Gregory XIII endorses change in Julian Calendar
1583 - Sir Humphrey Gilbert sails to Newfoundland
1584 - Richard Hakluyt publishes Discourse on Western Planting
1584 - First English landing in North America on Roanoke Island
1585 - Sir Walter Raleigh plants Roanoke Island colony
1588 - Defeat of Spanish Armada by English Navy
1589 - Richard Hakluyt publishes The Principal Navigations of the English Nation
1590 - John White mentions the counter-currents on the coastal side of Gulf Stream
1590 - Theodore De Bry maps Roanoke Island region
1590 - Roanoke colony found to be wiped out
1598 - Edict of Nantes & Treaty of Vervins ends French religious wars
1600 - Galilei Galileo attributes tides to Earth's orbital and axial movements
1602 - Bartholomew Gosnold cruises New England coast
1602 - Dutch East India Company chartered
1603 - James I succeeds Elizabeth as English monarch
1603 - Samuel de Champlain explores eastern Canada
1603 - Martin Pring explores Piscataqua Bay region
1605 - Waymouth expedition to Maine to settle Catholics
1606 - London and Plymouth Companies established to promote American settlements
1606 - Marc Lescarbot describes the meeting of the Labrador and Gulf Currents
1607 - English sailor John Davis invents back-staff
1607 - Virginia Company sponsors settlement of Jamestown
1607 - Plymouth Company sponsors exploration and settlement in Maine
1608 - John Smith publishes True Relation
1608 - Galileo invents astronomical telescope
1608 - Samuel Champlain establishes settlement at Quebec
1609 - Henry Hudson sails to the present site of Albany
1609 - "Starving Time" in Virginia
1610 - Henry Hudson explores Hudson Bay
1612 - John Smith publishes his Map of Virginia
1613 - Adriaen Block encourages Dutch settlement of Hudson region
1613 - Johannes Kepler publishes Harmonies of the World
1614 - English mathematician John Napier publishes logarithmic tables
1614 - John Smith seeking whales off New England
1616 - John Smith publishes __A Description of New England__
1616 - Galileo forbidden to pursue his scientific work pointing to heliocentric universe
1616 - Dutch mariner Adriaen Block produces first map of southern New England
1616 - Peter Minuit assigned to New Amsterdam as Dutch governor
1616 - Tobacco introduced as a Virginia crop
1619 - 20 Africans brought to Virginia by Dutch ship
1620 - English Separatists (Pilgrims) sail from Holland aboard __Mayflower__
1622 - Indian uprising decimates Jamestown settlement
1624 - John Smith publishes General History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles
1624 - Virginia becomes royal colony upon the bankruptcy of Virginia Company
1624 - Dutch Walloons from Amsterdam settle on Manhattan Island
1626 - Dutch settlement expanded by arrival of Peter Minuit
1626 - First shipments of furs from New Amsterdam to Holland
1627 - Dutch in New Amsterdam open trade with Plymouth Colony
1630 - English Puritans launch a large settlement in Massachusetts Bay Colony
1630 - Smuggling becomes commonplace among New Amsterdam mariners
1633 - English Catholics establish Maryland as a proprietary colony
1634 - Settlement begins on east side of East River, in Brooklyn
1634 - William Wood�s Map of Southern New England
1636 - Roger Williams founds Providence in Rhode Island colony
1636 - Discontented settlers establish Hartford and colony of Connecticut
1636 - Some Plymouth settlers move to New Haven on Long Island Sound
1636 - Harvard College founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts
1636 - Pequot War in Connecticut
1636 - First Africans dispatched to New Amsterdam
1638 - Swedish settlement established on Delaware Bay
1638 - English-born Isaac Allerton moves from Plymouth to New Amsterdam
1638 - Colony of New Haven established on Long Island Sound
1639 - Dutch Map of New York Harbor
1639 - Lion Gardiner purchase of island on eastern end of Long Island
1640 - First ferry between Manhattan and Brooklyn in operation
1640 - English settlement of eastern Long Island begins
1641 - First book printed in colonies
1642 - Governor William Berkeley arrives in Virginia
1642 - English Civil War begins; "Great Migration" ends
1642 - Montreal is founded by French
1643 - Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer
1644 - Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer for measuring changes in atmospheric pressure
1644 - Southampton establishes drift whale regulations
1646 - Robert Dudley publishes the first sea atlas made by an Englishman
1647 - Isaac Allerton constructs warehouse near site of South Street Seaport
1647 - Peter Stuyvesant arrives in New Amsterdam as Governor
1647 - New England trade begins with Caribbean
1648 - First pier on East River constructed
1649 - Charles I is captured, tried and beheaded
1650 - Oliver Cromwell assumes power in England
1650 - Parliament introduces Navigation Acts
1650 - English settlers engage in close-to-shore whale hunting
1650 - N. Sanson d�Abbeville, Map of North America
1650 - Shore whaling commences off NE and Long Island coasts
1652 - Massachusetts extends its authority over Maine
1653 - New Amsterdam receives city charter establishing municipal government
1654 - A weigh house built on pier and "master" appointed
1655 - End of Swedish presence in North America
1658 - Oliver Cromwell dies
1660 - Bernard Varenius classifies the Gulf Stream
1660 - Navigation Acts extended by English Parliament
1661 - Charles II made king of England
1661 - Lords of Trade established
1661 - Louis XIV ascends to French throne
1662 - Connecticut annexes New Haven to form single colony of Connecticut
1662 - England's Royal Society chartered
1662 - Robert Boyle propounds law that the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure
1662 - Englishman Lawrence Rooke encourages data collection at sea
1662 - English mathematician Isaac Newton develops calculus
1663 - Charters granted for Albemarne and Carolina
1663 - Royal African Compnay secures monopoly on British slave trade
1664 - English take control of Dutch settlements in New Netherlands
1664 - Robert Dudley produces first sea atlas to use the Mercator projection throughout
1664 - New Jersey established as an English proprietary colony
1665 - Kirchner publishes the first chart showing the Gulf Stream
1670 - Charleston settled in Carolinas
1671 - John Seller publishes The English Pilot: Fourth Book
1672 - Royal African Company granted monopoly for importing slaves
1673 - Dutch make unsuccessful effort to reclaim New York
1673 - English scientist Robert Boyle publishes his Observations...
1673 - Isaac Newton links tides to gravitational attraction of moon and sun
1673 - Augustine Herrman, map of Virginia and Maryland
1673 - Marquette and Joliet canoe down the Mississippi River
1673 - Navigation Acts favor colonial whale oil over Dutch
1673 - Parliament established Colonial Customs Service
1675 - King Philip's War
1675 - English Governor Edmund Andros assumes political leadership of New York
1676 - Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia
1676 - English settlement of East and West Jersey
1676 - "Great Dock" established
1677 - John Foster map of New England
1679 - French explorer Robert de La Salle sails on Great Lakes
1680 - New Hampshire established as a royal colony
1680 - New York a favored port for privateering ventures
1680 - Plymouth becomes an active whaling center
1681 - William Penn establishes colony of Pennsylvania
1682 - Narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson published
1683 - Robartte Ryder map of Long Island
1684 - Cotton Mather publishes Remarkable Sea-Deliverances
1685 - James II becomes King of England
1685 - Isaac Newton provides mathematical description for laws of gravity
1685 - Denis Papin proposes idea of a steam-driven ship
1685 - Wigundas Happelius publishes the second chart showing the Gulf Stream
1685 - Nicolas Visscher Nova Belgii, Novague Angle of Northeast coast
1686 - NYC government initiates landfills along Manhattan shorelines
1687 - Glorious Revolution underway
1689 - Parliament installs William and Mary as English monarchs
1689 - Glorious Revolution in English Colonies
1689 - Jacob Leisler leads rebellion against English rule in New York
1690 - William Kidd, pirate, takes up residence in New York City
1690 - Amphibious assault on French Quebec as part of King William's War
1690 - Fishermen on Nantucket commence their whaling
1690 - Nantucketers commence shore whaling
1691 - Royal charter replaces original charter for Massachusetts
1692 - Salem witchcraft trials
1692 - Governor Benjamin Fletcher accommodates pirates in New York
1693 - Carolina divided into North and South Carolina
1695 - First experiments with steam as locomotive force
1695 - William Kidd, a pirate, hired by Governor Bellomont to snuff out piracy in region
1697 - Parliament establishes the Vice-Admiralty Courts
1698 - Thomas Savery makes a steam engine that pumps water out of coal shafts
1699 - Kidd apprehended in Boston and sent to England for trial
1700 - Active trading between New York and the West Indies
1700 - Concept of a steam turbine, using vaned wheel, developed
1702 - East and West Jersey joined as New Jersey
1702 - King William dies; succeeded by Queen Anne
1702 - Queen Anne's War begins
1707 - English adopt term "Great Britain"
1710 - Boston constructs its Long Wharf
1712 - Christopher Hussey begins market for spermaceti whale oil
1712 - Market for spermacetti oil underway
1713 - Treaty of Utrecht ends Queen Anne's War
1714 - Queen Anne dies; succeeded by George I
1714 - English Parliament establishes prize for a method of calculating longitude at sea
1715 - Louis XV succeeds Louis XIV as France's monarch
1715 - Thomas Newcomen develops reciprocating steam engine from external source of heat
1716 - Boston Lighthouse put in operation
1720 - Nantucket becomes the leading colonial American whaling center
1720 - Cyprian Southack publishes New England Coastal Pilot
1720 - Nantucket becomes leading American whaling center
1721 - Carolinas separated
1726 - Nantucket boats take 86 whales
1726 - Nantucket boats take 86 whales in annual catch
1727 - King George I dies; succeeded by George II
1729 - North Carolina becomes a royal colony
1729 - Cyprian Southack publishes The New England Coasting Pilot
1730 - Tobacco Inspection Act passed by Virginia House of Burgesses
1731 - Boston merchant Thomas Hancock becomes middleman for sale of whale oil to English
1731 - Thomas Godfrey invents a sextant for calculating high-noon latitude determination
1731 - Boston becomes major whale-oil transfer point
1732 - English royal charter granted for colony of Georgia
1732 - Benjamin Franklin publishes first edition of Poor Richard's Almanack
1733 - James Oglethorpe establishes Savannah, Georgia
1736 - Rhode island initiates the colony's slaving expeditions
1739 - War of Jenkins' Ear begins
1740 - King George's War begins
1740 - Knowles Riot over English impressment in Boston
1747 - New Yorkers own 99 vessels
1748 - The __Bethel__ captures a Spanish treasure ship
1748 - Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends King George's War

1750 - American whaleships begin to be equipped with tryworks for processing whale blubber at sea
1750 - The oil from head of spermaceti whale recognized for its value in making candles
1750 - American whalers begin processing whale oil at sea
1750 - Spermacetti oil used for premium candles
1751 - Manufacture of spermaceti candles begun
1751 - Sperm candle manufacture begins in colonies
1754 - Seven Years War begins
1754 - King's College founded
1754 - Robert Treat Paine ships on a whaling voyage
1755 - English authorities force the departure of French Acadians from Nova Scotia
1756 - French and Indian War brings boom times to NYC
1758 - British amphibious operation seizes control of Louisbourg
1759 - British amphibious operation routs the French forces in Quebec City
1760 - Lloyd's of London formed to insure maritime insurance
1760 - Englishman John Harrison develops a seagoing clock
1762 - New Yorkers own 447 vessels
1763 - Proclamation of 1763 ends French and Indian War
1763 - Merchants attempt to corner the colonial market for sperm oil
1763 - New England merchants try to corner spermacetti oil market
1764 - British Navy establishes a presence in New York
1764 - Slaving voyage of the RI-based __Sally__
1764 - Rhode Island legislature objects to proposed Sugar Act
1765 - Parliament tightens administration of American colonies
1765 - New Yorkers protest imposition of Stamp Act
1765 - New Bedford becomes important center for American whaling
1767 - First __American Nautical Almanac__ published
1768 - Seizure by British customs officials in Boston of Liberty
1768 - Benjamin Franklin publishes his map of "The Gulf Stream"
1768 - Captain James Cook sails on his first voyage to the Pacific
1768 - New York trade with Great Britain drops sharply as result of non-importation accords
1768 - Sale of whale oil accounts for 53% of all sterling earned by direct exports
1768 - Whale oil prominent export product
1770 - Boston Massacre
1770 - Nantucket accounts for > 100 whaling vessels
1770 - Benjamin Franklin authorizes Captain Folger of Nantucket to draw a map of the Gulf Stream
1770 - Nantucket home to more than 100 whale ships
1771 - City builds first dock on Hudson River side of Manhattan
1772 - Rhode Islanders burn English custom schooner __Gaspee__
1773 - Boston Tea Party
1774 - Boston Port Bill closes Boston Harbor
1774 - New Yorkers stage their own tea party on British ship
1775 - Second Continental Congress authorizes creation of a navy
1775 - Congress buys the first vessel in its new navy
1775 - New York moves into open rebellion against Great Britain
1775 - Continental Congress authorizes organization of a Marine Corps
1775 - Esek Hopkins appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental navy
1775 - Practice of taking temperature readings crossing the Atlantic begins
1775 - Nantucket whalers on Falklands
1776 - Thomas Paine publishes __Common Sense__
1776 - Robert Morris becomes chairman of the Secret Committee of Trade
1776 - British forces evacuate Boston
1776 - The Andrea Doria attacks the Bahama Forts
1776 - America's first naval victory
1776 - Declaration of Independence published
1776 - British secure position in New York
1776 - General George Washington slows British takeover of Manhattan Island
1776 - Washington counterattacks by crossing the Delaware River
1776 - New York City under British military command
1776 - Esek Hopkins leads amphibious assault at New Providence, Bahamas
1776 - David Bushnell invents a torpedo-bearing submarine
1776 - James Watt builds improved steam engine
1776 - American naval vessel receives salute
1776 - British naval attack on Charleston rebuffed
1777 - Publication in Britain of __Atlantic Neptune__
1777 - The British defeat the American Fox and Hancock
1777 - Jonathan Haraden and Tyrannicide capture several ships
1778 - Captain John Paul Jones enjoys much privateering success
1778 - Planned French attack on NYC fails
1778 - American painter John Singleton Copley paints "Watson and the Shark"
1778 - Daniel McNeill commandeers thirteen British ships
1778 - Randolph-Yarmouth
1778 - Thomas Pownall publishes a chart and book on Currents of the Atlantic
1778 - Ranger-Drake
1778 - British sack and torch New Bedford
1779 - The defeat of HMS Serapis by the Bonhomme Richard
1779 - Jonathan Haraden claims three letters-of-marque
1779 - Continental Congress Debates Fisheries Issue
1780 - Joseph F. W. Des Barres publishes Atlantic Neptune, maps of coastal North America
1780 - Charleston falls to British assault from sea and land
1780 - Amercians suffer military defeat at Camden, South Carolina
1781 - Franco-American blockade of British at Yorktown
1781 - Robert Morris assumes effective control of the navy
1781 - The interdiction of British fleet by the French fleet
1783 - Washington and Governor George Clinton reclaim City from the just evacuated British
1783 - French experiment with steam boat Pyroscaphe
1783 - Peace treaty signed with Great Britain
1783 - American slavers back on African coast
1784 - First American ship sets sail for China from NYC
1785 - Joseph Russel whaler Rebecca, built by George Claghorn
1785 - Benjamin Franklin composes his Maritime Observations
1785 - American cotton first shipped to England
1785 - First American whaling vessel enters the Pacific whaling grounds
1785 - Congress sells all naval vessels, thus disbanding the naval service
1785 - Barbary states obstruct American trade in Mediterranean
1786 - Steamboat invented by John Fitch
1786 - Elias Derby's Grand Turk begins American participation in the Eastern trade
1786 - Benjamin Franklin publishes the sum of his maritime investigations
1786 - Continental Congress secures treaty with Morocco
1787 - Draft of the United States Constitution composed by Philadelphia Convention
1787 - Mutiny aboard the HMS Bounty in South Pacific
1787 - Trade between Boston and New York and Pacific Northwest commences
1787 - Englishman John Rumsey tests his experimental steam boat on Potomac River
1787 - John Fitch demonstrates his steamboat on Delaware River
1787 - Delegates at Constitutional Convention agree to include provision for Navy
1787 - First Americans round Cape Horn and sail up to the Pacific Northwest coast
1788 - In Federalist No. 11, Alexander Hamilton argues the case for the creation of a strong navy
1789 - United States Custom Service established
1789 - American whalers enter Pacific whaling grounds
1790 - Joseph Ingraham encounters six islands no American had
1790 - Congress enacts legislation pertaining to seamen and rules regulating desertion
1790 - Revenue Service established
1791 - John Kendrick becomes first American to reach Nippon, Japan
1791 - First American whaler rounds Cape Horn and commences whale hunting in the Pacific
1792 - Edmund M. Blunt publishes American Coast Pilot
1792 - Matthew Clark publishes The American Pilot in Boston
1792 - Robert Gray discovers the opening to the Columbia River
1794 - Treaty between Americans and English allows Anglo-American trade
1794 - Joshua Humphreys prepares the first models for "Humphrey's frigates"
1794 - Congress creates a Navy of the United States
1794 - Congress forbids Americans from slavetrading in foreign ports
1796 - Jay Treaty opens British ports to American trade and vice versa
1796 - Federal law specifying the issuance of Seaman's protection Certificates
1797 - John Adams calls on Congress to build a navy capable of stopping French harassment
1797 - Battle of Cape St. Vincent
1798 - United States enters into into an undeclared naval war with France
1798 - First and only American naval vessel lost to the French
1798 - Congress votes to establish a Department of the Navy
1798 - President Adams appoints Benjamin Stoddert as the first Secretary of the Navy
1798 - Battle of the Nile
1799 - East India Marine Society organized
1799 - Captain John Barry's victory over over the L'Amour de La Patrie
1799 - Constellation defeats L'Insurgente
1799 - Jonathan Williams publishes a map of the Gulf Stream
1800 - The 44-gun frigate USS President launched
1800 - The Quasi-War with France ends at Paris
1800 - Constellation-La Vengeance
1801 - Nathaniel Bowditch publishes first edition of New American Practical Navigator
1801 - Robert Richard Randall wills the creation of a maritime asylum and hospital
1801 - United States in an undeclared war with the Barbary States
1801 - Brooklyn Naval Yard opens
1801 - William Symington's steamboat Charlotte Dundas tows barges
1801 - President Jefferson identifies with an active navy
1801 - Battle of Copenhagen
1802 - First steam-boat is launched in England
1802 - John Stevens designs a screw propeller to propel steamboats
1802 - Nathaniel Bowditch publishes the first edition of his New American Practical Navigator
1803 - President Jefferson secures the Louisiana Purchase
1803 - Commodore Edward Preble forces Morocco to stop aggression against the US
1803 - Expedition of Lewis and Clark
1804 - John Stevens tests steamboat with boiler, cylinder, twin-screw propeller
1804 - Lt. Stephen Decatur raids Tripoli harbor
1804 - American blockade of Tripoli
1805 - Battle of Trafalgar
1806 - Resumption of British regulations against neutral trading
1806 - Nathaniel Fanning's autobiography published
1807 - Congress creates the United States Coast Survey
1807 - USS Chesapeake attacked by HMS Leopard in impressment dispute
1807 - Beginning of steamboat navigation on a commercial basis
1807 - President Jefferson secures passage of Embargo Act
1808 - Congress outlaws American participation in the African slave trade
1808 - First warship on patrol in Lake Ontario
1808 - First paddlewheel steamboat out from Delaware River into Atlantic
1808 - Gallatin Report on Canals to Congress
1808 - Albert Gallatin's Report on Roads and Canals to Congress
1809 - First steam-powered trip on the open ocean
1809 - First American ship to reach an Ottoman port
1809 - Embargo repealed by Congress and incoming President Madison
1809 - Congress outlaws American participation in the African slave trade
1810 - Discussion begins about building a canal linking Hudson River and Lake Erie
1811 - Winslow Lewis puts his newly patented lantern in Boston Harbor Light
1811 - First steam-powered ferry, linking New York and Hoboken
1811 - NYC street-grid plan adopted
1811 - USS President encounters HMS Little Belt
1812 - President James Madison declares war on British
1812 - Otway Burns begins his first of three very successful privateering voyages
1812 - First British frigate captured in the war
1812 - First captured British naval vessel put on public view in the US
1812 - Captain William Bainbridge on USS Constitution defeats HMS Java
1812 - Captain Stephen Decatur on USS United States defeats HMS Java
1812 - USS Wasp v. HMS Frolic
1812 - USS United States v. HMS Macedonian
1812 - USS Constitution v. HMS Java
1813 - British blockade effectively shuts down Chesapeake Bay
1813 - David Maffit begins his privateering aboard the Rattlesnake
1813 - Joseph Ropes and his America return to Salem with privateering prizes
1813 - "The Inglorious First of June"
1813 - Captain Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British ships in Lake Erie
1813 - John Chever made captain of the Crowninshields's America
1813 - British blockade of New York Port becomes effective
1813 - Construction of first catamaran steam frigate
1813 - USS Hornet v. HMS Peacock
1813 - USS Enterprise v. HMS Boxer
1813 - Perry victorious on Lake Erie
1814 - British troops burn Washington
1814 - Nathan Green takes Grand Turk on its fourth cruise of the war
1814 - British capture of Baltimore effectively resisted
1814 - Captain Thomas Macdonough stops British attempt to take Lake Champlain
1814 - Samuel Chester Reid engages with three British ships off the coast of Portugal
1814 - The HMS St. Lawrence seizes Lake Ontario
1814 - Peace of Ghent ends War of 1812
1814 - USS Peacock v. HMS Epervier
1814 - USS Wasp v. HMS Reindeer
1814 - Battle of Lake Champlain
1815 - Battle of New Orleans makes Andrew Jackson a national hero
1815 - Thomas Boyle's Chasseur becomes the only privateer to capture a vessel of the Royal Navy
1815 - Stephen Decatur procures treaties with Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis
1815 - End of War of 1812 inaugurates era of shipbuilding and maritime commerce
1815 - USS Constitution v. HMS Penguin
1815 - USS Hornet v. HMS Penguin
1816 - Stephen Decatur�s visit forces no-ransom treaty from Algiers
1817 - Governor DeWitt Clinton and New York legislature authorize the digging of the Erie Canal
1817 - Scheduled sailings from New York to Liverpool inaugurated
1817 - 2000 laborers commence to dig Erie canal
1817 - Steam ferry service from Manhattan to Staten Island
1818 - Transatlantic packet lines begun between New York and English ports
1818 - Coastal Survey transferred to Navy
1818 - Sir John Ross lowers a line more than a mile into the North Atlantic
1819 - Steamship Savannah makes first transatlantic voyage from Savannah to Liverpool
1819 - US acquires Florida
1820 - Whaleship __Essex__ wrecked by a whale
1821 - Narrative of Shipwreck of Whaleship Essex published
1821 - Account of Essex sinking published
1822 - First iron-hulled ships are built in England
1822 - Samuel Cummings publishes The Western Navigator
1822 - Slave insurrection in Charleston, South Carolina
1824 - James Fenimore Cooper published __The Pilot__
1824 - First dry dock in US built in NYC
1824 - Supreme Court rules monopoly given to original operators of steamships violated the Constitution
1825 - Erie Canal opened for traffic
1827 - Construction of railway in Massachusetts
1828 - Congress approves federally funded exploring expedition to South Pole
1829 - Robert Salmon paints "Sailing Vessels in Boston Harbor"
1830 - US Navy establishes Department of Charts and Instruments
1830 - Edmund Blunt publishes Blunt�s Charts of the North and South Atlantic Oceans
1831 - British oceanic expedition aboard HMS Beagle
1833 - The first clipper ship is launched
1833 - Norfolk Navy Yard constructs first drydock
1834 - First successful iron steamship in US coastal commerce
1834 - SS John Randolph completed in Savannah, Georgia
1835 - The Coriolos Effect discovered
1835 - Physical punishment aboard ship forbidden �without justifiable cause�
1836 - Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes his essay, �Nature�
1837 - President Martin Van Buren�s inauguration
1838 - United States Exploring Expedition gets underway
1838 - Steamships begin to be used in scheduled transatlantic trips
1838 - Steamship Inspection Act sets operational standards for passenger-carrying steam vessels
1838 - Lighthouse Service assigned to the Treasury Department
1839 - James Fenimore Cooper publishes his History of the United States Navy
1839 - The Amistad is seized by the 53 slaves aboard
1840 - Use of screw propellers become common
1840 - Richard Henry Dana, Jr. publishes Two Years Before the Mast
1840 - New York ships represent 1/5th of all US tonnage registered
1840 - Cunard Line launched
1841 - Herman Melville ships aboard the whaleship Acushnet
1841 - Edinburgh scientist Edward Forbes concludes that the sea contains no life below 1800 ft
1841 - Lt. Matthew F. Maury publishes series of sharply critical articles
1841 - Herman Melville ships aboard the whale ship Acushnet
1842 - US Navy commissions two paddlewheel frigates
1842 - Disturbance on US brig Somers results in the courts martial of three young recruits
1842 - Mutiny on sailing brig USS Somers
1843 - First of the American clipper ships sails around Cape Horn
1843 - Alexander Dallas Bache named 2nd Superintendent USCS
1843 - British launch Great Britain, propeller-driven iron-hulled steamship on Liverpool-NYC run
1843 - First propeller-driven steam warship in the world is launched
1845 - United States Naval Academy opens
1845 - Annexation of Texas by the United States
1846 - New York shipbuilders develop clipper ship configuration
1846 - Hudson River Railroad established
1846 - Peak year for American whaling industry
1846 - J. Ross Browne, Etchings of a Whaling Cruise
1846 - USCS conducts survey of Gulf Stream
1846 - President James Polk asks Congress to declare war on Mexico
1846 - John D. Sloat claims part of CA for the US
1846 - United States agreement with Great Britain recognizes US claims to Oregon and Washington
1846 - American whaling industry peaks
1846 - __Etchings of a Whaling Cruise__ published
1846 - Marblehead fishing fleet destroyed by storm
1847 - Matthew Fontaine Maury publishes his Wind and Current Charts
1847 - Regular transatlantic steamship service inaugurated between New York and Liverpool
1847 - Vera Cruz landing
1847 - John A. Dahlgren becomes chief of Navy ordnance
1848 - Beginning of the California Gold Rush
1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the war with Mexico
1849 - USCS Gulf Stream survey discovers Atlantic continental shelf and slope
1849 - Henry David Thoreau takes his first walking tour of Cape Cod
1850 - Congress outlaws flogging on American ships
1850 - Margaret Fuller drowns in a shipwreck
1850 - New York-built steamers of the Collins Line
1850 - NYC shipyard of William H. Webb takes lead in building extreme clippers
1850 - USS Franklin commissioned by US Navy
1850 - Flogging abolished on American merchant ships
1851 - Herman Melville publishes Moby Dick
1851 - City blasting of subsurface rocks around Hell Gate to improve navigation in area
1851 - Matthew F. Maury publishes a Whale Chart
1851 - Beginning of America's Cup
1852 - Steamboat Inspection Service established
1852 - Lighthouse Board established
1852 - Maury�s Wind and Current Chart
1853 - Admiral Matthew Perry opens Japanese ports to world trade
1853 - Boston-based Donald McKay becomes America's leading clipper-ship designer
1853 - Louis F. de Pourtales disputes theory that marine life does not exist below 300 fathoms
1853 - Clipper ship Young America launched
1854 - Navy constructs US Naval Observatory and Hydrographic Office in Washington
1854 - The clipper ship Flying Cloud sails from Boston to San Francisco
1854 - Compound steam engine developed in England
1854 - Collin�s Arctic lost after collision in fog
1854 - Western river engineers form fraternal organization
1854 - Anglo-American naval cooperation begins in Pacific theatre
1855 - Matthew Fontaine Maury publishes The Physical Geography of the Sea
1855 - 2000 thousand pilots and 2500 engineers licensed
1856 - Diamond Reef, off Governor's Island, removed by blasting
1856 - Declaration of Paris outlaws privateering
1856 - Collin�s Pacific lost with all hands
1856 - Wm. Ferrel publishes "Essay on the Winds and Currents of the Ocean"
1857 - Financial Panic takes capital out of NYC sailing ships businesses
1857 - James Madison Alden discovers gulch in Monterey Bay, California
1858 - Huge Great Eastern launched in England
1858 - The first transatlantic telegraph cable comes to life
1859 - Petroleum discovered in Pennsylvania
1859 - Charles Darwin implies that the deep ocean is a sanctuary for living fossils
1859 - Southern states urge repeal of laws prohibiting the slave trade
1859 - Petroleum discovered in Pennsylvania
1860 - South Carolina secedes from the Union
1860 - __Great Eastern__ steams into New York Harbor
1861 - Civil War underway
1861 - Beginnning of the military conflict of the Civil War
1861 - President Abraham Lincoln declares blockade of Southern ports
1861 - Capture by Union navy of Port Royal Sound
1861 - Confederate government purchases the first of its blockade running vessels
1861 - America�s merchant marine emerges as world�s largest
1861 - Captain Charles Wilkes removes two Confederate envoys from the British packet Trent
1861 - Mary Powell commences Hudson River run
1861 - Steamboat service on Long Island Sound
1861 - Inman Line ships to screw propeller
1862 - Capture of Fort Henry, Tennessee River
1862 - Amphibious operation leads to the capture of Roanoke Island
1862 - Stand off between USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
1862 - Union navy wins the Battle of New Orleans
1862 - Confederates successfully use a torpedo to sink a Union ship
1862 - Iron-clad steam-propelled warship USS Monitor commissioned by Union Navy
1862 - USS Monitor commissioned
1862 - Steam powered barkentine Alabama joins other Confederate raiders to destroy Union shipping in Atlantic
1863 - CSS Alabama sinks USS Hatteras
1863 - Capture by Union naval and army forces of Vicksburg
1863 - David G. Farragut promoted to new rank of Rear Admiral
1863 - Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley sinks for the first time
1864 - Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley sinks Union blockader Housatonic
1864 - USS Kearsage defeats the CSS Alabama
1864 - Union victory in Battle of Mobile Bay
1864 - Destruction of the Confederate raider CSS Albemarle
1864 - David G. Farragut promoted to new rank of Vice Admiral
1864 - Congress allows California to establish Yosemite Valley as a state park
1864 - George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature, or, Physical geography as Modified by Human Action
1864 - Erie Basin opens in Brooklyn's Red Hook
1864 - French Line opens New York service
1865 - Confederate raider Shenandoah captures and destroys 11 New England whaling vessels
1865 - CSS Shenandoah resumes its commerce raiding in the Pacific
1865 - General Robert E. Lee surrenders to General U.S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
1865 - President Lincoln assassinated
1865 - Confederate opposition ends
1865 - PCB-like chemical first developed
1865 - Civil War ends
1865 - Confederate raider Shenandoah attacks American whaling fleet
1867 - U.S. purchases Alaska from Russia
1867 - Louis F. de Pourtales dredges to depth > 500 fathoms
1868 - British oceanographer Wyville Thomson dredges sea life at 2400 fathoms
1868 - USS Wampanog undergoes trials
1870 - Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea depicts no sea life in the ocean�s deepest regions
1870 - Congress prohibits seal hunting on Alaska�s Pribilof Islands
1870 - Bureau of Docks established
1870 - NYC Bureau of Docks established
1870 - Shipping shifts from East River to Hudson
1870 - Work on Brooklyn Bridge commences
1871 - Spencer Fullerton Baird appointed first US Commissioner of Fisheries
1872 - US Fisheries commissions dredging along continental slope off New England
1872 - British physicist William Thomson invents a wireline sounding machine
1872 - Expedition to Pacific on finds hemp-line dredging defective
1872 - Charles D. Sigsbee�s soundings in Gulf of Mexico result in first modern bathymetric map
1872 - Shipping Commissioner�s Act reinforces desertion laws
1872 - Fish farming/aquaculture added to Fish Commission�s responsibilities
1872 - Yellowstone Park established as the country�s first National Park
1873 - Commander George Belknap uses a Thomson sounding machine to survey Pacific bottom
1873 - British Wyville Thomson leads first worldwide oceanographic cruise aboard HMS Challenger
1873 - Mandatory licensing examinations for captains and mates
1873 - US Naval Institute organized
1873 - Spencer F. Baird publishes The Condition of the Sea Fisheries of the South Coast of New England
1873 - Congress approves New York Harbor dredginge
1873 - New-York bound __Atlantic__ sunk
1874 - Commander Charles D. Sigsbee modifies Thomson Sounding Machine for future wireline sounding
1874 - New York starts first merchant marine officers� school at King�s Point
1875 - Captain H.H. Gorringe discovers an undersea mountain/ridge off Portugal
1875 - Marine Engineers� Beneficial Association formalized as labor union
1875 - New York Harbor freezes
1876 - British Plimsoll mark required on American vessels
1876 - Hell Gate blasting submerged rocks
1877 - USCG Steamer Blake equipped with steel dredging rope
1878 - Alexander Starbuck, History of the American Whale Fishery
1878 - US Coastal Survey renamed US Coast and Geodetic Survey
1878 - US treaty with Samoa provides naval station
1878 - The breeding of cod and haddock undertaken in a Fish Commission facility
1878 - History of American Whale Industry published
1879 - Fish Hawk launched as Fish Commission�s first research vessel
1880 - Coney Island Iron Pier opened
1881 - British begin use of steel in fabricating ship hulls
1882 - USFC steamer Albatross embarks on oceanographic researches
1882 - Theodore Roosevelt publishes __The Naval War of 1812__
1882 - 1.43 billion dead tile fish found floating on Georges Bank
1882 - USS Albatross launched as Fish Commission�s principal research vessel
1883 - Congress authorizes the construction of four steel �ABC cruisers�
1883 - Brooklyn Bridge opens
1884 - First steam turbine engine by Englishman Charles Parsons
1884 - Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan appointed as professor
1885 - Commander Elliott Pillsbury pioneers deep-ocean anchoring techniques to > 2000 fathoms
1885 - William C. Whitney secures support for four armored cruisers
1886 - US Navy builds its first major warship with a steel hull
1886 - Fish Commission acquires the fishing schooner Grampus for research purposes
1887 - Congress creates a Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee
1887 - US secures right to construct a naval base at Pearl Harbor
1887 - Spencer Baird dies
1888 - Marshall McDonald appointed head of Fish Commission
1888 - Marine Biological Laboratory opens at Woods, Hole, Mass.
1889 - US struggle with British and Germans over rights to Samoa
1889 - Livingston Stone compares the status of Pacific salmon to that of the disappearing bison buffalo
1890 - Benjamin Tracy secures support for a fleet of battleships
1890 - Mahan publishes __Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783__
1891 - Pacific coast unions combine as Sailors� Union of the Pacific
1891 - Massachusetts opens a Nautical Training School to train licensed engineers
1891 - Ocean Mail Act passed by Congress to subsidize overseas mail carriers
1891 - Last US Navy warship to carry full set of sails
1891 - Possibility of US war with Chile over a dockside barroom brawl
1892 - Marine Biological Laboratory opens at Woods Hole, Massachusetts
1892 - National Seamen�s Union of America formed
1892 - Prince Albert of Monaco starts to probe the sea�s dark midwaters
1892 - German inventor Rudolph Deisel patents internal combustion engine
1892 - Sierra Club established
1893 - The Ekman Spiral discovered
1893 - Uprising in Hawaii prompts call to annex Hawaii
1894 - Sir Charles Parsons modifies his marine steam turbine engine
1895 - Maguire Act abolishes imprisonment for desertion from coastwise vessels
1895 - Controversy between US and Great Britain over Venezuela
1895 - Uprising in Cuba attracts US attention
1897 - White Act abolishes imprisonment of US citizens for desertion
1897 - McKinley's election leads to appointment of John D. Long as Sec'y of Navy
1898 - Battleship Maine sinks in Havana Harbor
1898 - Commodore Winfield Scott Schley defeats Spanish Atlantic fleet
1898 - Admiral Dewey destroys Spanish Pacific fleet in Manila Bay
1898 - Irish-American John Holland launches his steam-powered submarine
1898 - USS Oregon steams from San Francisco to Florida in 67 days
1898 - US establishes naval blockade of Cuba
1898 - Theodore Roosevelt dispatches Asiatic fleet to the Philippines
1898 - President McKinley declares war on Spain
1898 - Theodore Roosevelt resigns as Sec'y of Navy
1898 - Spain's Atlantic fleet destroyed by US Navy off Cuba
1898 - US annexes Hawaii
1898 - Gifford Pinchot appointed chief of Division of Forestry
1899 - Alexander Agassiz leads expedition to South Pacific in search of new marine species
1900 - Boxer Rebellion in China
1900 - Purse-seine introduced to Pacific herring fishing
1901 - British commission first turbine-driven merchant steam ship
1902 - US declares the Philippines a US territory
1903 - Scripps Biological Research Laboratory founded in La Jolla, California
1903 - Fish Commission placed under the new Department of Commerce
1904 - Steam turbines installed on Cunard liners
1904 - General Slocum fire and sinking
1905 - Scripps Oceanographic Institution opens in La Jolla, California
1905 - Japanese defeat Russian fleet in Battle of Tushima
1905 - Congress authorizes construction of three pre-Dreadnought battleships
1905 - First federal salmon hatchery established in Alaska
1905 - Yosemite Park transferred from state to federal control
1906 - British Navy commission HMS Dreadnought, first of the British super battleships
1906 - Orville and Wilbur Wright launch airplane
1907 - Work begins on the 40-mile Panama Canal
1907 - President Theodore Roosevelt dispatches "Great White Fleet"
1908 - Matson starts Hawaiian service
1910 - First US Navy vessel to be fueled by oil
1910 - Congress approves construction of three Dreadnought type battleships
1910 - Airplane launches from the deck of American warship
1911 - Airplane successfully lands on the deck of a naval ship
1912 - White Star Liner Titanic sinks after striking an iceberg
1912 - Italians use aircraft to bomb Ottoman forces in Libya
1912 - Deisel-powered submarine crosses Atlantic Ocean without surfacing
1912 - H. B. Bigelow begins his researches in the Gulf of Maine
1913 - President Woodrow Wilson installs Josephus Daniels as Sec'y of Navy
1913 - Congress authorizes the dam in Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park
1914 - Beginning of acoustic exploration of the sea
1914 - German use of submarines in war prompts research in underwater detection
1914 - European nations commence World War I
1914 - British commission their first aircraft carrier
1915 - President Wilson signs La Follette Seamen's Act
1915 - US Coast Guard created through merger of Revenue and Lifesaving Services
1915 - US battleships Tennessee and California with turbo-electric propulsion
1915 - First planes catapulted off deck of a naval ship
1915 - German submarines sink British liner Lusitania
1915 - Germans indicate submarines would not target passenger ships
1916 - Shipping Act creates Shipping Board
1916 - Battle of Jutland between British and German battleship fleets inconclusive
1917 - US purchases the Virgin Islands from Denmark
1917 - Germans resume unrestricted submarine warfare
1917 - US declares war on Germany
1917 - US merchant ships effectively protected by naval convoys
1917 - National Park Service established
1918 - Armistice signed, ending World War One
1919 - Germans scuttle their fleet in Scapa Flow
1920 - Alfred Wegener proposes the idea of continental drift
1920 - Merchant Marine Act increases Shipping Board�s control and reaffirms cabotage
1920 - Alexander Behm advances echo sounding
1920 - Settled/Disputed Issues
1920 - Navy restructured into three battleship fleets
1920 - US war planning focuses on Pacific confrontation with Japan
1921 - Shipping Board establishes a union lockout on all government ships
1921 - Navy conducts air-strike test in Chesapeake Bay
1921 - European powers and Japan set limits on respective naval forces
1921 - Albatross decommissioned after forty years of scientific research
1921 - Port Authority of New York established
1922 - Acoustic echo sounder developed by Harvey Hayes
1922 - Washington Treaty brings a halt to US building of battleships
1922 - Navy converts a cruiser into first US aircraft carrier
1923 - Deep-water acoustic sounding instruments come into regular use on USCGS ships
1924 - USCGS deploys first radio acoustic ranging (RAR) system
1924 - Federal subsidies stimulate several new shipping lines
1924 - George Wust proves correlation between geostrophic currents and Florida Straits
1924 - Fulton St. Ferry ends run to Brooklyn
1925 - German research ship Meteor confirms existence of Mid-Atlantic Ridge
1925 - USCGS researchers identify sea monuts off Alaska and N. California
1926 - Bureau of Fisheries commissions Albatross II
1927 - National Academy of Sciences panel urges greater American investment in oceanographic research
1927 - Congress authorizes construction of two new aircraft carriers
1927 - Anti-submarine devices installed on navy ships
1927 - Construction begins on Manhattan's West Side Highway
1928 - Merchant Marine Act extends mail contract subsidies
1928 - Henry Beston publishes Outermost House
1929 - Arthur Holmes supports the continental-drift hypothesis
1929 - California Maritime Academy founded
1930 - Intensive on-location research on the Gulf Stream by the research ship Atlantis
1930 - London Conference restructures naval allowances
1931 - USS Ranger (CV-4) authorized
1931 - Rachel Carson hired by Fisheries Bureau Chesapeake Bay Division
1931 - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution established at Woods Hole, Mass.
1932 - Bureau of Marine Inspection supercedes Steamboat Inspection Service and Bureau of Navigation
1932 - Beebe and Barton establish deep ocean depth record
1933 - President Franklin Roosevelt�s relief legislation included construction of carriers
1934 - Descent to ocean floor by William Beebe and Otis Barton in a new bathysphere
1934 - Striking maritime unionists shut down San Francisco
1934 - Japanese withdraw from Washington Naval Agreements
1935 - Maurice Ewing uses geophones and deep sea camera on USCGS vessel Oceanographic
1935 - USCGS researchers deploy radio sono-buoys
1935 - Wagner Act establishes National Labor Relations Board
1935 - State of Washington prohibits the use of all fixed fishing gear
1935 - Wilderness Society established
1936 - Merchant Marine Act abolishes Shipping Board and establishes Maritime Commission
1936 - Attempt to connect the downstream increase of mass transport and turbulent wake in Gulf Stream
1936 - Columbus O�Donnell Iselin publishes his observations of the flow in the Western Atlantic Ocean
1936 - Japan launches largest battleship ever built, the Yamato
1936 - PCBs deemed a human threat
1937 - Athelstan Spilhaus invents bathythermograph
1937 - Joseph P. Kennedy appointed the first head of the Maritime Commission
1937 - Albert Eide Parr reports on the Straits of Florida
1937 - Renewal of US construction of battleships after collapse of naval treaties
1937 - Japanese planes destroy USS Panay on Yangtze River
1938 - Maritime Commission authorizes large merchant fleet
1938 - Raymond B. Montgomery calculates the variation in the total transport of the Gulf Stream
1938 - Carl Vinson secures authorization for naval buildup
1939 - Fish & Wildlife Service created
1939 - Bureau of Fisheries transferred from Commerce to Department of the Interior
1940 - Maritime Commission agrees to build 60 ocean-class merchant ships
1940 - Columbus O�Donnell Iselin reports on the variations of the Gulf Stream
1940 - Congress authorizes construction of Essex-class aircraft carriers
1940 - US-British �destroyers for bases� deal
1940 - German U-boats unchallenged by British
1940 - Roosevelt accepts essentials of Navy�s �Plan Dog�
1940 - Bureau of Fisheries becomes Bureau of Fisheries and Wildlife
1940 - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution operated by the Navy
1941 - American merchant vessels begin traveling in convoys to elude German U-boat attacks
1941 - Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor destroys US battleships
1941 - US informally enters anti-submarine war against Germany
1941 - British battleships sunk by Japanese
1941 - Rachel Carson publishes Under the Sea Wind, her first book
1942 - Coast Guard takes over Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation
1942 - Federal Merchant Marine Academy opens
1942 - Maine Merchant Marine Academy opens
1942 - Roosevelt appoints Ernest J. King, Chief of Naval Operations
1942 - US forced to leave Philippines and Guam
1942 - Navy block Japanese move on to Australia in Battle of Coral Sea
1942 - Battle of Midway gives Navy its first clear victory
1942 - Essex-type carriers join the fleet
1942 - Navy engaged in series of amphibious landings on Pacific islands
1942 - Atlantic fleet successfully minimizes effectiveness of German U-boats
1942 - Normandie sinks in New York Harbor
1942 - Battle of Java Sea
1942 - Battle of Coral Sea fought to a draw
1942 - Battle of Savo Island
1942 - Guadalcanal amphibious landing
1942 - Battle of Guadalcanal
1942 - North African amphibious landing
1943 - Admiral Ernest J. King cancels plans for construction of Montana-class battleships
1943 - Battle for the Aleutians
1943 - Central Pacific island-hopping offensive launched
1943 - Amphibious landings on Sicily
1944 - The 4th Iowa-class USS Missouri commissioned
1944 - Mariannas Islands invaded
1944 - Battle of Philippine Sea
1944 - Battle of Leyte Gulf
1944 - Anzio amphibious landings
1944 - Normandy Invasion
1945 - Obsolescence of battleship is accepted
1945 - Japanese surrender; WW II ends
1945 - Construction completed on three Midway-class carriers
1945 - U.S. jurisdiction extended to outer edge of the continental shelf
1945 - Philippines landing by American forces
1945 - Amphibious landing on Iwo Jima
1945 - Invasion of Okinawa
1945 - Japan sues for peace: V-J Day
1945 - Nuclear bomb used on Hiroshima
1945 - War ends in Europe: V-E Day
1946 - Loran/Shoran replaces RAR as navigation system at sea
1947 - Maurice Ewing conducts massive study of the Atlantic sea bottom and Mid-Atlantic Ridge
1947 - National Maritime Union breaks with Communists
1947 - National Security Act reorganizes military structure
1948 - Explanation for westward intensification of wind-driven circulation of oceans proposed
1948 - Auguste Piccard dives in his bathyscaph
1948 - Albatross III commissioned as Fisheries Bureau research vessel
1949 - Maurice Ewing oversees the opening of Columbia University�s Lamont Geological Observatory
1949 - Aldo Leopold has his Sand County Almanac posthumously published
1950 - Functions of Maritime Commission transferred to Department of Commerce
1950 - Danish ship lowers dredges into the sea�s deepest trenches and hauls up swarms of invertebrates
1950 - North Korea invades South Korea
1950 - Successful amphibious landing on Inchon, South Korea
1951 - Lamont Geological Observatory obtains its own research vessel
1951 - Explanation of current structure of Gulf Stream off Canad made
1951 - Synoptic study of the meandering pattern of the Gulf Stream presented
1951 - Rachel Carson publishes The Sea Around Us, her second book
1952 - Marie Tharp discovers that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge contains a long rift valley
1952 - Admiral Hyman Rickover presses construction of nuclear submarine
1952 - GE begins use of PCBs along Hudson
1953 - Auguste Piccard enters an improved bathyscaph and dives to a depth of nearly two miles
1953 - Submerged Lands Act
1954 - Cargo Preference Act provides subsidies for ships carrying government cargoes
1954 - USS Forrestal commissioned as first super carrier
1955 - USCGS survey on Pioneer discover magnetic striping on ocean floor
1955 - Precision Depth Recorder (PDR) developed
1955 - Magnetic striping of sea floor discovered
1956 - Bureaus of Commercial and Sport Fishing established
1956 - Carson publishes The Edge of the Sea
1956 - Containers introduced to transport cargo
1958 - Henry Stommel publishes The Gulf Stream
1958 - American navy buys Trieste and begins to strengthen its steel personnel sphere
1959 - Lamont group publish map of the North Atlantic�s ocean floor
1960 - Wood�s Hole Oceanographic Institute conducts surveys of the Gulf Stream
1960 - Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh dive in Trieste to bottom of Challenger Deep
1960 - Nuclear armed missile Polaris made operational
1960 - "Evolution of Ocean Basins" paper circulated
1961 - American ship lowers a pipe through more than two miles of water and drills into the rocky seabed
1961 - Robert Dietz proposes that the seabed�s mountainous rifts are invisible scars
1961 - US commissions first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier
1961 - Seafloor spreading propounded
1962 - Harry Hess and Robert S. Dietz link notion of sea-floor spreading to mantle convection currents
1962 - Texas A & M establishes Texas Maritime Academy
1962 - US builds 41 ballistic-missile launching submarines
1962 - Atlantic fleet blockades Cuba during missile crisis
1962 - Fisheries Bureau acquires Albatross IV
1962 - Rachel Carson published The Silent Spring
1963 - F.J. Vine and D.H.. Matthews publish findings about the likely magnetic striping of sea sediment
1963 - Thresher, America�s most advanced submarine, sinks
1963 - USS Lafayette launched
1964 - Navy launches the first piloted craft able to roam the deep with relative ease
1964 - Destroyer USS Maddox attacked by 3 North Vietnamese torpedo boats
1964 - The Wilderness Act passed
1964 - Ecologist Barry Commoner writes about the �killing� of Lake Erie
1965 - Supertankers of 200,000 tons are introduced
1965 - Development of numerical models to predict major features of the Gulf Stream
1965 - Navy tests its first underwater robot
1965 - Navy develops a submarine that can lower miles of cables to spy on enemy armaments
1965 - Sierra Club sues NY over Storm King plant
1966 - Aerial surveys of the Gulf Stream undertaken
1966 - Alvin and Navy retrieve a lost American hydrogen bomb
1966 - U.S. extends U.S. fisheries zone from three to twelve miles
1966 - Proposal for Westway project made in public report.
1967 - Walter C. Pittman confirms the Vine-Matthews theory
1967 - Tanker Torrey Canyon wrecks off Britain
1967 - Upwards of 11 aircraft carriers engaged in air attacks on North Vietnam
1967 - President Lyndon Johnson appoints Stratton Commission
1968 - The American Export Line�s two flagships are taken out of passenger service
1969 - Great Lakes Maritime Academy opens
1969 - Stratton Commission publishes Our Nation and the Sea
1969 - Haddock decline off New England attributed to Russian trawlers
1969 - Oil tanker spill off Santa Barbara fouled Southern California beaches
1969 - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created
1969 - Our Nation and the Sea published
1970 - Merchant Marine Act authorizes subsidized shipbuilding program
1970 - Admiral Elmo Zumwalt appointed Chief of Naval Operations
1970 - NOAA established
1970 - Clean Air Act passed
1970 - Eight species of whales are placed on the Endangered Species List
1970 - Bureau of Commercial Fisheries moved to Commerce Department
1972 - The Clean Water Act
1972 - The Coastal Zone Management Act
1972 - Environmental Protection Act
1972 - Marine Mammal Protection Act
1972 - Ocean Dumping Act
1972 - NMFS declares its future focus is to be resource-oriented
1972 - DDT outlawed
1973 - Congress passes Endangered Species Act
1973 - Fort Edward Dam emits PCBs
1973 - Part of West Side Highway collapses
1974 - Government sets PCB safety threshold
1974 - Westway project formally proposed by NYC mayor Beame
1975 - Observations of rings and eddies of the Gulf Stream undertaken
1975 - Nuclear carrier Nimitz commissioned
1976 - Women admitted to U.S. Merchant Marine Academy
1976 - Congress bans use of PCBs
1976 - GE charged with PCB polluting of Hudson
1976 - N.Y. State prohibits fishing in upper Hudson
1976 - Argo Merchant oil spill in Nantucket Sound
1977 - GE halts PCB dumping in Hudson
1977 - Sierra Club sues to stop Westway project
1978 - Record oil spill off French coast
1978 - Infra red observations of the Gulf Stream undertaken
1978 - Observations of color variations in the Gulf Stream undertaken
1978 - EPA makes PCB dumping illegal nationally
1978 - Love Canal pollution made public
1980 - Global Positioning Systems (GPS) become available for civilian use
1980 - Court gives US jurisdiction of part of Nantucket Sound
1981 - John F. Lehman, Jr., appointed Sec�y of Navy by President Reagan
1981 - Responsibility for regulating fishing on Georges Bank becomes a diplomatic issue
1982 - United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
1982 - Court backs environmentalist case against Westway
1983 - President Ronald Reagan adopts UN concept of EEZ
1983 - Hudson pollution to get federal attention
1985 - Manhattan Westway project cancelled
1986 - A worldwide ban on whaling begins
1987 - Altimeter observations of the Gulf Stream undertaken
1987 - National Estuary Program launched
1988 - Marine Engineers� Beneficial Association and National Maritime Union join forces
1988 - The U.S. Ocean Dumping Act
1988 - New York seeks federal funds for Hudson cleanup
1989 - __Exxon Valdez__ grounds off Alaska
1989 - Turret Two of battleship USS Iowa blows up
1990 - Oil Pollution Act mandates double-hulls for all new oil tankers
1990 - U.S. commercial fishing reported catches totaling $3.5 billion
1990 - Striped bass fishing reopened on Long Island
1991 - Naval involvement in US-led �Desert Storm� against Iraq
1991 - Tailhook convention produces sexual harassment charges by attending women
1992 - Canadian government prohibits cod fishing on Grand Banks
1993 - Golden Venture runs aground
1994 - House Merchant Marine Committee dissolved
1994 - UN Convention on Biological Diversity enters into force
1996 - Earth cracks open north of Grimsvotn, Norway
1997 - Launch of ocean color sensors
1999 - Georges Bank reopened to limited commercial scalloping
2000 - Destroyer USS Cole damaged by terrorist attack
2001 - Polk publishes Women of Discovery
2001 - Port of New York 3rd busiest US port
2001 - US merchant fleet world's 12th in tonnage
2001 - Proposal to build wind farm in Nantucket Sound
2002 - US Navy SEALs involved in Afghanistan
2003 - Pew Oceans Commission publishes its report
2003 - Fine to $7 billion by federal court for Exxon Valdez spill
2004 - Tsunami hits Sotheast Asia
2004 - Army Engineers report backs wind farm in Nantucket Sound
2005 - Bush Administration to review US opposition to Law of the Sea Agreement
2005 - Fulton Fish Market Relocates
2005 - Congress stalls Nantucket Sound wind farm
2006 - Early American Maritime History seminar
2007 - Teaching & Learning Conference at CMA