Site Name

Alexandria

Type

Seaport - other

Description

city (1996 pop. 3,328,196), N Egypt, on the Mediterranean Sea, at the W extremity of the Nile R. Delta, situated on a narrow isthmus bet. the sea and L. Maryut, 110 mi/177 km NW of Cairo; 31�12'N 29�54'E. Egypt�s leading port, a commercial and transportation center� Founded in 332 B.C. by Alexander the Great, it was the capital of the Ptolemies and the greatest center of Hellenistic and Jewish culture� Alexandria�s importance, however, decreased steadily from the time of Ceasar due to the gradual destruction of its libs. and a decline in shipping� By the 14th cent. the canal to the Nile had silted up. The city gradually regained importance after 1819, when the Muhmudiyah Canal to the Nile was completed by Muhammad Ali, who developed the city as a deepwater port and naval station� During World War II, Alexandria, the chief Allied naval base in the E Mediterranean, was bombed by the Germans� Nothing remains of the lighthouse on the Pharos, which was one of the 7 wonders of the anc. world�